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	John App traveled to California from Pekin, Illinois in 1850, 
making the journey with a wagon train as thousands of pioneers did 
during the days of the gold rush. Through the years his diary has been 
remarkably preserved and is in the possession of Mrs. Pat (Heiskell) 
Hillman, Tulare, California, a great-granddaughter of John. John App 
(1821-1898) was the son of Mathias J. App (1796-1878) who was the 
son of Matthias App (1761-1828). Born in Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania 
John moved west to Pekin, Illinois with his family in 1833. He arrived 
in California in the fall of 1850 and married Leanna Donner (of the 
famed Donner Party and second oldest daughter of George Donner) in 
1852 at Sutter's Fort, now Sacramento, California. He and his wife 
moved to Quartz Mountain, California (near Jamestown, CA) where he 
homesteaded and discovered a gold-bearing quartz mine on what is 
known as the Mother-Lode. Called the App mine, it was one of the top 
gold producers of the southern mines.
	The diary measures 10 cm wide, 14.5 cm tall, 8 mm thick and has a 
tan, leather covering with plain paper pages bound with string. John 
wrote his diary in pencil although there are some notes made in ink 
from a time prior to his departure west. It has become fragile with age, 
but is still very much in readable condition with the leather cover still 
retaining a soft feel.
	The book itself does not appear designed to be a diary as such, but 
rather a book filled with blank pages for general use. John used it 
initially as journal to keep track of miscellaneous notes to himself such 
as to whom he loaned money, and various expenses of his own. The 
first pages of the book have been fashioned by John (on the right-hand 
side of each page) into an alphabetically tabbed journal A through Z.  
The full pages which followed were used to make various notes such as 
medicinal remedies, expense reports, etc.
	It appears as though he had this book with him on the trip west 
and decided to use it as a daily record of the trip. He started the 
journal midway through the book where blank pages began, and 
continued writing to the end of the book skipping over pages where 
there were already notes. When he reached the end of the book he 
continued writing on the beginning pages (on the alphabetically tabbed 
pages) where there was free space. Therefore, his story begins on diary 
page 64, continues through page 94, continues on page 2, and ends on 
page 43.
	Although only his basic story has been transcribed here, the pages 
of the book detail other fascinating information such as a list of 
supplies to be taken west (complete with costs), a population analysis 
of Pekin, IL for 1849, and a drawing of a man riding a mule. 	The 
transcribed text contains an accurate replication of spelling and 
grammar. Word spacing, punctuation, and small page markings were 
impossible to accurately reproduce in the transcription. View the copy 
of the original diary for handwriting and markings. A scanned image of 
each diary page is available in computerized grayscale file format image 
(IBM Compatible). In the transcription references to page numbers in 
the original diary are shown inside [], and vertical writing in margins 
are shown inside {}.
	He ran out of writing space in this book, consequently the diary 
ended before John reached California. It is not known if he continued 
his journal in another book, or if he had nothing else along with him in 
which to write.  Part of the geat american gold rush, you will be able to 
feel his emotion as he travels to "see the elephant" from his old home 
in Pekin, Illinois to his new home in California.

Larry App    Bristol, Indiana    June 1995


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[Page 64]
Left Pekin March 27/50 at about noon-rather
a gloomy time all day Reflecting about
matters and things at home, got along pritty
well, Stopped below Kingston about 2 miles
Looks Like rain very much this Evening

March 28 - we Camped for the first time 1
mile west of Canton, had Ham Bread &
water for supper and went  Glorious fine for
we were  most darned Hungry this day we
had rather a better time of it than Yesterday
{Commenced on a ham 17 lbs-}

[Page 65]
March the 29
Last Knight we slept on the ground was rather
an unpleasant Knight Cloudy Threatening rain
& cold, this morning, Opened very fine, the sun
Rose in its brightest Hugh and not a cloud was to the seen, the 
birds seemed to rejoice singing and Chirping in Every direction a mor 
Lovely morning I never beheld, Especially when, we were taking our 
breakfast on  the Trunk of an Old Oak, It would have been amusing to 
you to have seen

[Page 66]
us taking our grub, It Consisted of  Ham, Coffee & Bread a little 
Better than Last Knight, this Evening we had Ham Eggs Bread & 
Coffee done up Brown and went very fine, we had a very Fine day and 
are now camped at Burnedott, Traveled First day Only 10 miles second 
day 15 miles and To day 20-. Looks a little Like rain
March 30th
waked up this morning very Comfortable, Looked Like rain. Cloudy 
and gloomy about 9 o'clock it Cleared

[Page 67]
up and sun shone bright as Ever, We Traveled about 35 miles to day, 
and a fine time we had, Lots of fun, It is amusing to see the natives run 
to the road to see the Elephant. Old men, women, Girls & Boys, when 
they see us coming if it is a half mile off across their fields,  they 
shinet to the road helter skelter, little fellows falling down others 
stumbling over them, Hurra boys the Elephant the Elephant they Cry, 
this Evening we are camped in Modonaugh County about 5 miles west 
of Mc Comb

[Page 68]
at a good Ol Pennsylvania Farm House, are going to stop till monday 
morning, This Evening we had Ham, Eggs, Potatoes, Bread, and 
Coffee- we now have a little stove Just weighs 11 1/2 lb with all the 
cooking utensils, and it is very Comfortable, in our tent this evening  
the stove makes it so warm that we have to open the tent and let out 
the heat, so let it rain or shine and we are at home my hat full of wood 
will cook our meals vituals, this Evening we have straw to sleep on and 
now it is bed time Jake let us turn in

[Page 69]
Sunday Evenig March 31 st 
this morning we waked up rather Late on account of having to good a 
bed to sleep on.  but as it is the sabboth day, men were not in a hurry, 
we Cooked our Breakfast and then shaved washed, and cleaned up, all 
things, to order this day has been rather a dull day, Being Easter, to, 
Mr Stickels is the mans name that owns the Farm we are stoping on 
now he very kindly invited, us to his house and take dinner with him, 
we concluded that it would save our cooking at Home Therefore we 
thanked him

[Page 70]
very kindly, and accepted the Invitation. Being Easter we had plenty of 
Eggs and a first rate dinner, after which I sat down at the Reading table 
and among the Books I found a Singing Book (Carmina Sacra) I 
inquired if any of them sing, (as I thought it a good way to pass off 
the day) some of them soon replyed they did, a little, soon all hands 
got to singing, and Just as I had got in my most mellodious strains of 
music, a little Boy came running into the door, and said that the Hogs 
were rooting

[Page 71]
at our tent. Jake started first before he reached the Tent the Hoggs had 
Eat all our provisions which was not much,  half Loaf of Bread, 1 peck 
of potatoes and Twelve or Fourteen lbs Ham, so all we had Left was a 
Prarie Chicken that Jake shot Yesterday, so we did not make much by 
dining with our good old methodist Friend, next me and my good Old 
Friend started for methodist meeting of 1 1/4 mile walked, and Heard 
a Real Old Fashioned sermon and did not see a ___ ___ ___ and then 
footed it home (I call

[Page 72]
my Tent Home) now the next was our grub again. I called on the Old 
Man for a few of the substantials, got a Ham & some Bread.  this 
Evening we had Coffee, Bread & our Prarie Chicken stewed, and went 
fine now ready to go to Bed-  Looks very much like rain
April 1st
waked up this morning and found it raining very fast and to my 
astonishment found not a drop of water in the Tent, we slept as dry as 
if we had been in the Best House, next I Examined the wagon and 
found all in perfect order {Bought 14 1/2 lbs Ham}

[Page 73]
But the poor mules had to take it, next we got up a fire in our stove 
and in a few minutes it was so warm that we had to throw open the 
door, and let out the heat, we cooked our Breakfast and Eat it with as 
much comfort as can be Imaginable, nothing to disturb us, only when 
we went out, we passed off the day in reading writing _____ till noon 
when it slacked raining then we harnessed our mules pulled up stakes 
and left, But by the time we got ready to start it began to rain

[Page 74]
again very fast, I then called on the Old major for the first time, (My 
Old Great Coat I mean when I say major) and mounted Fan (the 
saddle mule) and away we went singing Old Langsyne, through the 
rain, rained all after noon but the Old major kept me dry, we camped 5 
miles East of Layharp, Travelled only 10 miles. Every thing is 
comfortable now Jake is parching Coffee and I think the rain is over, 
taking this day up one side and down on the other, it was rather wooley 
I think.

[Page 75]
Tuesday April 2d
This morning we found It clear, fed our mules, got our Breakfast 
Harnessed our mules pulled up stakes, and Left, supposing the rain to 
over with, we got along fine till about 11 oclock then it Began to rain 
again like Fury, I Immediately Called on the old major, (as I had him 
on the top of the wagon drying out yesterdays rain) got him on my 
Back, and I on the mule, and away we went, rained all afternoon, But as 
we set our stakes this morning

[Page 76]
to be in Fort Madison Iowa, this Evening we pushed ahead and stoped 
for nothing, and are now Camped in the City of Fort Madison.  we had 
not much Trouble in Crossing the Ferry, we come about 25 miles this 
day,  to day was much wors than Yesterday muddyer, and rained Faster, 
pitched our Tent after dark and as soon as we got our Tent up then we 
were at home again, all things are done up now, and ready to go to 
roost, it has Just stoped raining

[Page 77]
wednesday Eveing April 3
waked up this morning and found it Cloudy and Threatning rain, as it 
did rain pritty much all day, fed our mules got our Breakfast, and then 
as soon as I got the Tent Clear of the crowd of men and Boys changed 
my shirt, and concluded to visit doct Rhinehart and Family, I started 
But Before I got to the House I met a messenger  after she saying that 
Mrs Rhineheart, said that we should come up to their House 
Immediately, as I was on the road at the time it did not take me long to 
get there; the first person

[Page 78]
I Saw was Mrs Rhineheart comeing out of the gate to meet me, well 
Indeed now John, I did not think it was You. I was ushered into the 
House immediately, Vally was at school, But Immediately sent for. 
School, work, and every thing Els, was laid to one side, and we must 
pull up stakes and come to their House right away, no Excuse would 
answer, and the doctor went with me to the Tent and Helped us to pull 
up stakes, and move to their House, We soon moved and are now

[Page 79]
 in the doctors House, Have spent a very Pleasant day notwithstanding 
it rained all day, Enjoyed myself very much felt Perfectly at Home had 
all the attention paid us Imaginable, Ft. Madison is rather a flourishing 
Place, and when we wer Encamped had a great many visitors, the doct 
has a very Fine House and Lots, A Beautiful situation, he is not Liveing 
in his new house as Yet  but soon will, he has his lots filled full of all 
Kind of trees, Roses, Shrubbery &, thinks he never will Leave this

[Page 80]
place, he is doing a very good Business, he has been Called upon, I 
should Think 20 times since we have been here, and Mrs Rhineheart 
says that it is always just so, when their is any sickness.
Thursday Evenig April 4th
waked up this moring  found it Cloudy and raining.  rained all day 
pritty much we Expected to start this moring, But their was no getting 
away until it stoped raining- Therefore we Concluded as we wer doing 
so well, to stop one more day.  this day went off rather Better than 

[Page 81]
Clarissa favoured us with several good tunes on the piana, she plays 
very well, is now taking lessons from an Eccellent Teacher, we chatted 
and talked about Every thing that was going on in Pekin, so that we 
Killed Time very fast, this Evening I amused the girls and the old Lady 
By giveing them drawings of our first Encampment and our misfortune 
the time the Hoggs ran off with our grub & I will also give You a few 
of them if I have time. good night- -

[Page 82]
Friday Evening Apr 5
waked up rather Late this morig  Looked out of the window and found 
it Cloudy as before, But I was determined to start this day; for I began 
to think if I did not start soon I would not get to St Joseph this 
season, saying nothing about California  Traveled about 20 miles this 
day and camped in the Prarie, rain and sunshine all day, It was awful 
muddy Hub deep at a great many places- the meanest road that I Ever 
Travelled- If we had our full Load In

[Page 83]
we could not get along  But as it is. we get along first rate, I cannot 
forget Mrs Rhinehart.  she seemed to take so much Interest In our 
welfare, done Every thing to make us Comfortable, In short she was a 
mother to us, She mad us a present of a Bottle of Horse Raddish (1/2 
gall), done up fine, she thought we had not Bed Clothes Enough, 
Therefore gave us a very heavy Comfort, and a good many other little 
presents, in short could not do enough for us,

[Page 84]
Saturday Evening April 6th
this morning it was Clear  the sun shone, and the roads dried up very 
fast to day, this day was wors than Yesterday.  it was mud all the time. 
and often times draged the axle, mules in mud to their Hocks & Bellys 
often times, ploughing and wallowing Through the mud, I dont think 
It can be any wors from this on, we are now In Keosaequa Iowa,
Travelled 25 miles, took supper with one of Jakes old Friends, I Killed 
2 P. Chickens this

[Page 85]
day, there is 25 or 30 Teams in this town waitig to cross the river des 
moin  they say that there has about 250 Teams Crossed at this ferry on 
des moin River.  grain and hay is very scarce, Oats 35 c Hay 25 to 50 
ct per Hundred, we Have Been very Lucky as Yet always getting what 
we want at reasonabl Prices, as I told you, when they get a dime out of 
me, I get value for It certain and shure, take all that I can get Honestly 
and Keep all that I have got. with all my saving it is very Expensive 

[Page 86]
Saboth Evening April 7th
Last night we slept in the wagon for the first time; Did not sleep so 
comfortable as in the Tent; Previous to this, Took our grub with Jakes 
old Friend, Mr Shepherd this morning. then made for the Ferry, 
Crossed about 10 oclock  Traveled about 3/4 mile then stoped and 
piched our Tent, Fixed our mules, I then put some water on the stove, 
and Commencd washing, I washed six shirts, 2 pr trawsers, 3 pr socks, 
2 Hdkfs, 2 Towels, making 15 pieces and done it first rate, streched 
our Cards, Hung

[Page 87]
out all our Clothes, and aired Every thing, greased our wagon, and now 
Every thing is in order to start in the morning, all Clean and nice, I was 
very Busy this day, in fixing up things, therefore passed off the day very 
well, thought of Home several times But still not Homesick Yet, We 
have Been rather Lonesome since we left haveing no Company as yet. 
We Camped alone Every night since we left Home accept this Evening 
this Evening we have some company

[Page 91]
Monday Evening April 8th
This morning it was Cloudy, felt very much Like rain, Cleared up, and 
was fine, Traveled about 20 miles, had Lots of fun and Company  all 
day after we crossed the des moin.  the road was Lined with Teams, 
this is a very Hilly Country, up and down Hill all day, several wagons 
Broke down to day, they are going in all ways and manners, some 
taking it a foot others packing, I saw several Teams that had 4 Horses 
and 5 and 6 men to But one wagon, Yesterday I saw

[Page 92]
a man and his wife and Brother going along with only 2 Horses and an 
old wagon, from what I have seen already, I think there will be an 
awfull Time on the plains this season, paid 40 cts per bus for Corn- 25 
cts per cwt for Hay this day
Tuesday Eve Apr 9th
This moring it was Cloudy Cleared and was Fine all day till this 
Evening, then it Clouded up and sprinkled a little, Now Clear again  
this morning we Changed

[Page 93]
our mules to ther right places, put Liz the Little gray in the Lead for 
the first time, and in the Course of one Hour she went first rate, this 
morning we mired for the first time, this is an awful country for mud, 
Hills, and slews, this Evening we have plenty of Company, Mr Adams 
& Cla___ of Tazewell are Camping with us to night,
Wednesday Evening April 10th
this was a very Cold day till noon, then the sun shone and was rather 

[Page 94]
Last night and night Before it froze very Hard, prospects for grass are 
rather wooley, and corn is getting Higher  they ask 75 cts per Bushel at 
this place in Iowa. Travelled about 20 miles  Yesterday about 20 miles 
 this evening there is about 25 wagons Camping with us- we have Just 
had our supper, and I Eat so much that I can scarcely write, Jake and 
myself can drink 1/2 gall Coffee, Eat 1 Loaf Baked Bread, 1/2 doz Eggs, 
and 2 large slices of Ham at one meal

[Page 2]
Thursday Eve Apr 11-
This day we had Plenty of Company Roads pritty good, no Hay, for 
our mules this Evening, Corn 75 cts per bush-  froze Hard Last night-
Friday Eveing Apr 12
this was a very Cold and windy day, Travelled about 25 miles 
Yesterday, this day about 30 miles  nothing of Importance only I saw 
several going Back to their Homes

[Page 3]
Saturday Evening Apr 13
this morning it was very Cold and windy, froze very Hard Last night, 
This day we were alone all day, This Evening we had lots of fun  18 or 
20 Teams in Camp  among the Boys there was a Claronette and fiddle, 
we had good music, danced, waltzed, and raised, old times in the 
Camp- a little warmer this Evening-  the grass is very slow comeing-

[Page 4]
Saboth Evening Apr 14th
This moring when I woke I found it snowing, snowed till noon, then 
the sun shone very Bright all afternoon  the snow was about 3 inch 
deep But now nearly all gone  this was a rather Lonesom day, this 
Evening we spent in singing Spiritual Songs-  there is two old deacons 
in the camp

[Page 5]
Monday Evening Apr 15th
this morning the sun shone very Bright, and had a very Pleasant day, 
there is about 20 wagons in camp this night, we had Lots of fun this 
Evening, singing songs, and dancing on the Old shin Break style, under 
the trees, Saturday we Traveled about 20 miles, this day about 25 miles 
 the roads were rather sloppy to day, I think the winter is now Broke It 
is quite Pleasant this Evening-

[Page 6]
Tuesday Evening April 16th
waked up this morning and found it Cloudy, Cooked our grub, 
Hooked up our mules and started, went about 2 miles and then 
Commenced raining, rained all day and very Cold, this is the most 
disagreeable day we have had since we left Home, Travelled about 10 
miles to day

[Page 7]
and stoped a meeting House with stabling Enough for all our mules & 
Horses, about 30 Head or more, we were very Lucky in getting to so 
good a stopping place as this, Corn is selling at one dollar per Bushel 
to some of the Boys, some of our Boys went 3 miles and paid one 
dollar per Bushel for Corn and 50 cts per bag for oats in the sheaf, this 
has Been a lively day since we got in the Church  4 stoves a going and

[Page 8]
Choping the old Benches into fire wood for the stove, The stables are 
Better than the House- this Evening we Had a regular shin Brake in the 
old Church- danced Cotillions, waltzed, and raised old Ned, we have a 
Jolly Crowd.  All strangers to me But first rate fellows,
Wednesday Evening Apr 17th
waked up this moring and had the Headache very Bad, it Lasted till this 
Evening, It was Cloudy and Cold all day

[Page 9]
we Traveled about _0 miles this day, we paid one dollar for 1 Bushel of 
Corn  the most that we have paid previous to this was 50 cts per 
Bushel, I am stoping this Evening with a farmer, as I was unwell I 
thought I would recruit But I mised the mark  all we had for supper 
was side meat fried, a real old Fashioned dodger and some Coffee, 
without sugar or milk, a hard

[Page 10]
Old place, the Old man is now stirng the Chunks while I am writing, 
little does he Know what I am writing now or perhaps he would put 
water on It, Jake is Camped about a 1/4 of a mile from this place, with 
the rest of the Boys are helping him so that we have Friend where Ever 
we go,
Thursday Eveg Apr 18th
waked up this moring Sound and Clear  had a good Bed and felt fine, 
paid my Bill which was Only 12 1/2 cts and Left for the

[Page 11]
Camp ground, the Boys were all very glad to see me Come, this day was 
Cloudy and is now Threating rain. Jake Hurt his leg to day, By Letting 
the wagon wheel run over it But nothing very serious  he is a little 
Lame this Evening  Travelled about 20 miles and are now about __ 
miles from St Joseph, there is about 40 wagons

[Page 12]
in Camp this Evening  Paid 50 cts per Bus for 4 Bush Corn this day I 
Expect that will do us with what oats we have at St Joseph if it has 
Friday Evening April 19
waked up this moring Found it Cloudy and Thundering I expect we 
would have a great storm But soon cleared up, I shaved, shirted, pulled

[Page 13]
stakes and left for St Joseph, we are now Camped about one mile above 
Town at a very good place   I saw more Teams and Tents this day than 
I Ever saw Before at one time,  Every place is crowded, our provisions 
and grain has not Yet arrived, and am afraid It will detain us, next 

[Page 14]
I Expect to start for the mountains if our grain Comes __  there is a 
great rush in St Joseph at this time, gambling of all kinds and Every 
thing that You Can Imagine, Old Jshabony and his tribe of Indians 
passed our camp this Evening and are camped about one mile from 
here, about 60 of them, the only Indians that I have saw on the rout  all 
pritty drunk- I shall Close this letter now and

[Page 15]
Before I leave I shall send You one more, I have not received the scratch 
of a pen as Yet, the first thing I done was to go to the post office, to 
see if there was any letters  But none-
Left St Joseph April 24 Crossed the River and left, on the 25th in the 
moring at 8 oclock Travelled about 20 miles

[Page 16]
we had the first stampede April 27 in the Evening when we were 
putting out the guard ther was a tremedous snorting and fuss among 
the mules and ___   all at once they Broke (they were staked out) 
pulling up their stakes snorted and a general rush for the wagons, a 
regular stampede, the fright was Caused by a wolf I suppose as ther was 
tracks of that Kind seen next moring, it Caused great alarm

[Page 17]
in the Camp and I about think ther was 2 guns Loaded at the time  But 
since, Every gun is Loaded and in order, so that we were Learned a 
good lesson and put on our guard, there is only 19 of us in Company-
Passed Ft Kerney monday on the 6th of May  in good Health sent one 
letter to Father

[Page 18]
roads and weather Fine, the grass very short, a heavy frost last night,
7th of Mar  a very heavy frost   passed 50 teams this moring 9th May
Rained last night for the first time,  May 10  we passed 25 Teams- 
very Pleasant this day,
May 11  Frost last night, the fist Buffalo I saw, Passed 11 Teams had 2 
buffalo chases only 2 rains since we left St Joseph

[Page 19]
this afternoon the boys were out Hunting Buffaloe- shot at Several, did 
not Kill any, shot 1 antelope, and the meat is good  very much like 
Saboth, May the 12th.
this day I saw about 40 soux Indians in one Tribe and about 150 in the 
other  the only Indians I saw since we left ther mission 30 miles this 
side of St Joseph- the darndest Beggars I Ever saw  our mules were

[Page 20]
very much Frightened  when we got in their town Turned short about 
and made for the brush as if the old scratch was after them, did not 
Break anything, I sold « gall of Brandy, for 1 good Buffaloe Robe and 
one dollar in Cash, so I made the Robe Clear.  we made the Indians 
Presants of something to, Eat, Clothing for are use of the grass and 
meat as they Claim all, I had the H _____ ____ ____ ____ the Great 
the Indian Chief of the Souxs they number ninety Thousand

[Page 21]
in the Hole Tribe, they are scattered all along the road- But Friendly, 
we have some fun

[Page 22]
with them sometimes, Yet ther is some of them that will steal, and if 
they catch 2 or 3 from the road they will scalp them, for their, Guns & 
Horses, I have only heard of 2 that were run about 6 mile in camp,  the 
2 men were out Hunting and Killed a Buffaloe, the Indians came across 
them and Chased them from their meat and drove them in camp, they 
dont like to have their Game

[Page 23]
killed off, we are now about 65 miles from Ft Larama, and about one 
Thousand miles from Home, we left Ft Kerny on the 6th May about 
noon and on Saturday about non we will be in Ft Larama, the reason 
why I am now writing is, we Expect the Express along today or 

[Page 26]
Left Ft Larama May 19 in the afternoon  went __ miles and camped, I 
saw snow when I was at the Fort on the Larama peak a distance of 45 
miles, Ft Larama is a rather pritty Place, situated on the Banks of 
Larama River  a nice Level valey with a Chain of Bluffs on Both sides, 
their is only 3 Companies of soldirs here now, their is one Store, and 
the way they sell goods is a Caution  I stoped in and Bought a fish line, 
such as costs about 4 cts, paid 30 for it, a Tooth Brush that cost about 
6 c

[Page 27]
the price was 50 c and no Jewing, it is a one priced store, a Tin Bucket 
that Cost 45 or 50 ct  two and a half dollars, Every thing Els in 
proportion, what uncle Sam has to sell is very Reasonable, Flour 11 1/2 
cts per lb Crackers 14 ct ___, Buffaloe meat Fresh 6 cts per lb, Baked 
Bread Fresh 11 1/2 cts per lb  the Freight from the River is 9 cts p lb to 
this place so they dont make much  they aim to sell at Cost, so the 
Commissary told me we got some Fresh Buffalo

[Page 28]
meat and Fresh Bread then. we had fine liveing for a few days, Game 
has been very scarce so far, Liquor Beats ale for Prices, one of the 
Peoria Boys sold 1 gall of Brandy pritty well watered for 12 dollars  
whiskey is selling by the small at 1 dollar pr pint, Brandy at 2 dollars 
pr pint, If I had to make this trip over again I would Know what to 
bring and How to fix, Yet we are as well fixed or rather Better than any 
on the road, If I had one Bbl of Brandy I Could

[Page 29]
make 500 dollars out of it Easy, Last Friday we passed the St Louis, 
Pasenger Train they sold 2 of their spring Carriages at the Fort for 20 
dollars, their Horses & mules are

[Page 30]
very Poor, and some of the Passengers wish they had died Before they 
started, they left the Missourie River Before we did, they will have as 
hard or rather harder time than last season, Because their is no Chance 
for Recruiting, the Grass is so short, and the Emigration so great that 
nearly Every space is swept Clean, and the last will have to take it, we 
have grain Enough to take us over the Mountains I think the grass is 
getting much Better

[Page 31]
Thursday May 23rd
The weather is fine nights Cool and in the middle of the day Just about 
warm Enough to make a person sleepy and Lazy, if the weather and 
roads continue as they are now we will have a pleasant Trip of It, so far 
it has been very nice indeed, sometimes for a day or two the water 
would be scarce and we would have to drink mud or go without, But 

[Page 32]
is nothing, to what they had Last season Cold plenty of mud, and 
sickness   it is very Healthy this season, or at Least I have heard of But 
one death, a Boy died with the measels, we are about one month ahead 
of Last seasons Travail, I saw a Board Yesterday with a mans name on 
it dated the 4th of July 1849, no wonder they had a warm time of It, I 
have an Idea that we will have a Cool time of it the trip through, I can 
see snow now

[Page 33]
May the 26th 1850
we were at the Rock Independence resting are mules as it was the 
saboth day, The Rock Independence is a very Larg Rock with, perhaps 
5 Thousand or more names on it. I took a Cold Chisel & Hatchet then 
Engraved my name on the south side, as it is such a noted Place for 
names to stand For Ever

[Page 34]
the Rock is about 6 Hundred Yards Long, 120 Yards wide, about 150 
Feet High- Composed of Hard Granite with a very pritty stream of 
rock  this day I passed of In making dried apple Pies, Cooking Rice  
Baking Bread etc, we had a Big diner on that day, ___ Fried Ham, Rice, 
warm Bread, Pies, Coffee, Pickels, dried venison A very fine Fruit Cake, 
(that Jakes mother Baked Before we left) toped off with some pickled 
Onions, The greatest diner we had since we are on the road
May the 27th   that night it snowed, and snowe all moring till 10 
Oclock- so Cold that I wore my

[Page 35]
over Coat all day, passed the, devils Salt, a Larg mountain that Sweet 
water River runs Through, the avenue or Chanel is Beautifull  the 
Rocks are is supposd 400 feet, Perpendicular on Each side of the 
Chanel, their is a great many Curiositys on this Road

[Page 36]
Every day something new, the trip so far has paid first rate, and if it 
Continues this way Through, It will be a pleashure trip to me Instead 
of a toilsome and suffering time, the greatest Bulliphant I saw since I 
left Pekin, was between Pekin & St Joseph, awful mean Roads, mud, 
Rain, Hills, and sloughs all the way But since that time we have had a 
good time of it, plenty to Eat and drink- some times it was a little 
dusty and generally, Pritty Cold at nights, we have

[Page 37]
Plenty of Bed Clothes and a good tent  therefore, we did not mind that, 
It is amusing to see the Boys go, some are a foot, some Pack, 
sometimes Men and 1 Horse, their is 2 men Packing with a Hand Cart, 
working their way through in that style, one Fellow Before us, with a 
wheelbarrow going it like Jehugh, these men that walk are Furnished at 
the Forts.  so it goes, some of the Emigr to, that start late will suffer 
very mush, or the account of Provisions they most of men started

[Page 38]
with short allowances Expecting to be furnished at salt lake but as I 
have understood it is very scarce at that place   Flour costs 20 cts per 
lb Every thing in proportion, May the 30 th we Passed the summit or 
dividing Ridge of the Rocky Mountains  had a very heavy frost that 
Crossed Sublets Cut off June 1st   It was Cloudy and Cold, distance 
48 miles (measured the same day) without water, it is called the great 
desert, I dont Call it a desert, Because there is plenty of grass and

[Page 39]
a hard road all the way.  Stoped at green River Saboth day June 2d  
Saw a few Indians
made a Boat of a wagon Box and Ferried Hams River on the 4th of 
Left Ft Hall Road and took Hudspeths Cut off the 8th of June 1850, 
fine weather. camped Saboth June 9 20 miles on Cut off
Left Hudspeths Cut off June 13th, Rained, snowed, and Hailed on the 
15, Between Raft Road marys river, very disagreeable- considerable of 
the Bulliphant in that place
Saboth June 16th Traveled Camped in the Evening about

[Page 40]
45 miles from marys R  very fine day, Traveled that week 175
17th snowed and very Cold
In the morning of the 18th of June it was so Cold that it froze Ice an 
inch thick in the water Buckets,
Levi was taken sick June 19th  Lay Sick 3 days on Humbolt or marys 
June 23d the Saboth we Traveled Because we had been detained in 
Crossing the headwaters of marys R, the first Introduction we had to 
the Elephant was on Raft R, to see men

[Page 41]
hauling and draging their wagons and mules through the swamps and 
sloughs about 1/2 mile going it with a long Rope in their shirt tails, I'm 
about down getting Cold, and nothing to Eat since morning, we 
Camped and in the moring looked around and found a good place to 
cross the head without any trouble, so it goes.  Men make them selves 
sometimes trouble when their is no use in it, rush ahead without 
looking where they go until they get in so

[Page 43]
deep that they cannot back out, and sometimes lose a day

(end of diary)

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